|Part of the Politics series|
Consensus democracy is the application of consensus decision-making to the process of legislation in a democracy.(e.g. Switzerland) It is characterized by a decision-making structure that involves and takes into account as broad a range of opinions as possible, as opposed to majoritarian democracy systems where minority opinions can potentially be ignored by vote-winning majorities. A consensus government is a national unity government with representation across the whole political spectrum. A concordance democracy is a type of consensus democracy where majority rule does not play a central role. Optional referendums and popular initiatives correspond to consensus democracy.
Consensus democracy is most closely embodied in certain countries such as Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Lebanon, Sweden, Iraq, and Belgium, where consensus is an important feature of political culture, particularly with a view to preventing the domination of one linguistic or cultural group in the political process. The term consociational state is used in political science to describe countries with such consensus based political systems. An example of such a system could be the Dutch Poldermodel. Many parties in Lebanon call for applying consensus democracy, especially at times of crisis.
Consensus government chiefly arises in non-partisan democracies and similar systems in which a majority of politicians are independent. Many former British territories with large indigenous populations use consensus government to fuse traditional tribal leadership with the Westminster system. Consensus government in Canada is used in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, as well as the autonomous Nunatsiavut region, and similar systems have arisen in the Pacific island nations of Fiji, Tuvalu and Vanuatu, as well as the ancient Tynwald of the Isle of Man.
- Anticipatory democracy
- Bioregional democracy
- Coalition government
- Consensus decision-making
- Consensus voting – the modified Borda count (MBC)
- Democracy (varieties)
- Direct democracy
- Grassroots democracy
- Hung parliament
- List of politics-related topics
- Open source governance
- McGann, Anthony J., and Michael Latner. "The calculus of consensus democracy: Rethinking patterns of democracy without veto players." Comparative Political Studies 46.7 (2013): 823-850.
- Kasuya, Yuko, and Benjamin Reilly. "The shift to consensus democracy and limits of institutional design in Asia." The Pacific Review 36.4 (2023): 844-870.
- Vatter, A. Consensus and direct democracy:Conceptual and empirical linkages. European Journal of Political Research 38, 171–192 (2000).
- Lijphart, A., Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms & Performance in Thirty-six Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-300-07893-5
- Graham White (2011). Cabinets and First Ministers. pp. 58–63. ISBN 978-0774842143.
- Consensus Democracy: A New Approach to 21st Century Governance
- Metagovernment - Project using the wiki consensus model as a replacement for current governments.
- On Conflict and Consensus - A Handbook on Formal Consensus Decisionmaking.
- Consensus voting, the Modified Borda Count (MBC)