Coordinates: 55°49′N 37°58′E / 55.817°N 37.967°E / 55.817; 37.967
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Clockwise: Lenina Avenue, Balashikha-Arena, Balashikha railway station. Balashikha cotton mill #1
Clockwise: Lenina Avenue, Balashikha-Arena, Balashikha railway station. Balashikha cotton mill #1
Flag of Balashikha
Coat of arms of Balashikha
Location of Balashikha
Balashikha is located in Russia
Location of Balashikha
Balashikha is located in Moscow Oblast
Balashikha (Moscow Oblast)
Coordinates: 55°49′N 37°58′E / 55.817°N 37.967°E / 55.817; 37.967
Federal subjectMoscow Oblast[1]
City status since1939
 • BodyCouncil of Deputies
 • HeadSergey Yurov
 • Total244.18 km2 (94.28 sq mi)
150 m (490 ft)
 • Total215,494
 • Estimate 
468,221 (+117.3%)
 • Rank86th in 2010
 • Density880/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toBalashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
 • Capital ofBalashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
 • Urban okrugBalashikha Urban Okrug[3]
 • Capital ofBalashikha Urban Okrug[3]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[6])
Postal code(s)[7]
Dialing code(s)+7 495
OKTMO ID46704000001

Balashikha (Russian: Балашиха, IPA: [bəlɐˈʂɨxə]) is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the Pekhorka River 1 kilometer (0.62 mi) east of the Moscow Ring Road. Population: 520,962 (2021 Census);[8] 215,494 (2010 Census);[4] 147,909 (2002 Census);[9] 135,841 (1989 Census).[10]


In Finno-Ugric languages,[which?] Bala-shika means land of celebrations, land of laughter and fun.[11] Finnic peoples lived in this area before Slavs.


The city is known for its unique river and waterway system. The Pekhorka River system covers an area of 40 kilometers (25 mi) from north to south and 20 kilometers (12 mi) from east to west, and many small lakes and ponds were created by damming to provide water power for the cotton mills in the 19th century.


Balashikha was established in 1830.[2] It was granted town status in 1939.[12] Several rural hamlets had existed long before on the site of the modern city.

The city stands on the famous Vladimir Highway, which led out of Moscow to the east. This was the route along which convicted criminals were marched to forced labor camps in Siberia. The road was renamed Gorky Highway in the Soviet era. The failure of the Decembrist Revolt against Tsar Nicholas I led to the execution of its ringleaders and the exile of many nobles to Siberia. Soviet-era schoolchildren were told that the prisoners were marched in chains along this road followed by their wives. In truth, the Decembrist prisoners were sent from St. Petersburg, then the capital of Russia, through Yaroslavl, and not through Moscow and Balashikha, and the story was invented as part of celebrations of the 100th anniversary of the event in 1925.

Between 1830 and 1870, a cotton factory was in operation in the area, with its fabric called Balashikha. A railway station was built at the end of the 19th century, again called Balashikha Station.

As it grew, Balashikha absorbed other villages, including Gorenki, a suburban estate of Count Andreas Razumovsky, and Pekhra-Yakovlevskoye, an estate of Prince Galitzine, the latter being in use for 250 years from 1591 to 1828. This is the site of a stone church, built from 1777 to 1782.

Saltykovka, a part of Balashikha, has long been known for its attractions to the artistic community. Isaak Levitan, the famous landscape painter, lived there in 1879. Lev Tolstoy was another frequent visitor.

Soviet period[edit]

Several institutions were founded in Balashikha after the October Revolution, including one dedicated to the production of fur.

During the Soviet era, Balashikha became a major industrial center with industries in metallurgy, aviation industry, cryogenic technology, machinery, and other fields.

Balashikha sent many of its sons to the front to fight the Germans during World War II. Among those who fought and died was Ivan Flerov who commanded a Katyusha rocket division and is remembered by several monuments and museums in the area.

Along with many other Russian Orthodox Churches, the Cathedral of Saint Alexander Nevsky was demolished by the government. The Cathedral was blown up in the 1960s but was rebuilt, on its original site, in 2002.


The Balashikha Maternity House was designated on July 1, 2003, to be the Moscow Oblast Perinatal Center. This facility will now function as a regional perinatal care facility for high-risk mothers and infants and a perinatal health education center for Moscow Oblast.

Although not part of the extensive Moscow subway system, Balashikha is home to many office workers who commute to Moscow each day. It has several thriving markets and retail centers and is quickly modernizing. It is surrounded by attractive woodland and countryside.

In January 2015, the city of Zheleznodorozhny was abolished with its territory merged into Balashikha.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with twelve rural localities, incorporated as Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Balashikha Urban Okrug.[3]

In the past, Balashikha served as the administrative center of Balashikhinsky District. On January 1, 2011, the district was abolished.


The 2017 national rink bandy cup took place in Balashikha.[13][14][15]


Balashikha radio tower - 300-meters mast left and 176-meters tower on the right

The city is home to several music schools, including the Sviridov School of Arts. Attractions include the Balashikha Arena and Moscow Radio Center 13.


Balashikha is the site of a large Russian Army base and was closed to foreigners during the Soviet era, a ban which, in theory, remains to the present day.[citation needed] It was the headquarters of the 1st Corps of the Soviet Air Defense Forces and is now to become the headquarters of the Operational-Strategic Command for Missile-Space Defense. Balashikha is also a base for ODON (Internal security division). Balashikha is home to Military Unit 35690, which is a training facility used by the Federal Security Service.[16]

Notable people[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Balashikha is twinned with:[17][18]



  1. ^ a b c d e Law #11/2013-OZ
  2. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 35. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  3. ^ a b c d Law #208/2014-OZ
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ Error: Unable to display the reference properly. See the documentation for details.
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Всероссийская перепись населения 2020 года. Том 1 [2020 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1] (XLS) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ "Топонимия Балашихи". Archived from the original on July 26, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  12. ^ Balashikha. Official page. History.
  13. ^ "Кубок России по мини-хоккею с мячом - 2017 - Соревнования - Федерация хоккея с мячом России".
  14. ^
  15. ^ "Кубок России по мини‐хоккею с мячом стартовал в Балашихе". Телеканал 360°.
  16. ^ Bellingcat Investigation Team (February 17, 2020). ""V" For "Vympel": FSB's Secretive Department "V" Behind Assassination of Georgian Asylum Seeker in Germany". bellingcat. Most frequent were Krasikov's visits to FSB's highly secure Special Operations Center in Balashiha, a suburb just outside Moscow. This heavily guarded facility, known as Military Unit 35690, was the original military base for the KGB's Vympel Spetsnaz unit, and now serves as headquarters for the FSB's CSO, as well the home-base of the elite and secretive Departments V and A.
  17. ^ "Сергей Юров предложил создать группу по работе с городами-побратимами". (in Russian). Balashikha. September 9, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  18. ^ "Балашиха и китайский Янчжоу будут сотрудничать в экономике и культуре". (in Russian). Balashikha. April 13, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2020.


  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от 31 января 2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области», в ред. Закона №249/2019-ОЗ от 29 ноября 2019 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области"». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования (13 января 2013 г.). Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №24, 12 февраля 2013 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #11/2013-OZ of January 31, 2013 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast, as amended by the Law #249/2019-OZ of November 29, 2019 On amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast". Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication (January 13, 2013).).
  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №208/2014-ОЗ от 30 декабря 2014 г. «О преобразовании городского округа Балашиха и городского округа Железнодорожный, о статусе и установлении границы вновь образованного муниципального образования», в ред. Закона №52/2015-ОЗ от 13 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Московской области "О преобразовании городского округа Балашиха и городского округа Железнодорожный, о статусе и установлении границы вновь образованного муниципального образования"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования, за исключением статей 4 и 5, вступающих в силу через один месяц после вступления в силу настоящего Закона в случае отсутствия инициативы жителей Городского округа Балашиха о проведении местного референдума по вопросу определения структуры органов местного самоуправления Городского округа Балашиха. Опубликован: Официальный Интернет-портал Правительства Московской области (, 30 декабря 2014 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #208/2014-OZ of December 30, 2014 On Transforming the Urban Okrug of Balashikha and the Urban Okrug of Zheleznodorozhny, on the Status and the Border of the Newly Established Municipal Formation, as amended by the Law #52/2015-OZ of April 13, 2015 On Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On Transforming the Urban Okrug of Balashikha and the Urban Okrug of Zheleznodorozhny, on the Status and the Border of the Newly Established Municipal Formation". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication, with the exception of Articles 4 and 5, which take effect one month after this Law takes effect, providing the lack of initiative of the urban okrug residents to conduct a local referendum on the subject of establishing the structure of the bodies of local self-government of Balashikha Urban Okrug.).

Further reading[edit]

  • "Balashikha in stories" (Балашиха в очерках и зарисовках) - А. Галанин и др.

External links[edit]